Skip to main content

Full text of "Picturesque representations of the dress and manners of the English"

See other formats









A4-V \'i^-^ 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 


I'ubUflhtA Jan^l&iS I 









7 37 



APR20 1959 





Plate Plate 

1. The Sovereign. 27. 

2. Farmer's Boy. 28. 

3. Waterman to a Coach-stand. 29. 

4. Yeoman of the Guard. 30. 

5. Shrimper. 31. 

6. Peer in his Robes. 32. 

7. Dustman. 

8. Hastings Fisherman. 33. 

9. Fireman. 34. 

10. Judge. 35. 

11. Billingsgate Fish-woman. 36. 

12. Greenwich Pensioner. 37. 

13. Bishop. 38. 

14. Chelsea Pensioner. 39. 

15. Milk-maid. 40. 

16. Drover. 41. 

17. Knight of the Garter. 42. 

18. Sailor. 43. 

19. Match Girl. 44. 

20. Herald. 45. 

21. Chimney-sweeper on the ist 

of May. 46. 

22. Barrow-woman. 47. 

23. Lord Mayor. 48. 

24. Postman. 49. 

25. Lady in her Summer Dress. 

26. Hi^hland Shepherd. 50. 



General Officer, 

Dairy Maid. 


Speaker of the House of 

Butcher's Boy. 



Blue-coat Boy. 





Serjeant Trumpeter. 


Privateof the42d Regiment. 

Market Woman. 

Grenadier of the 1st Regi- 
ment of Guards. 

Beadle of the Church. 

Welsh Woman. 


Ofiicer of Roy;; I 11 orse Artil- 

Private of Life Guards. 



Represented in his coronation robes, over which he 
wears the insignia of the Order of the Garter. The chair 
in which he is seated is similar to that in which the 
Kings of Great Britain are crowned. 

EE'GILAI^JD --blate 2 

JhiittfheJ Jan'l.!iI3.fy J Mwrtiy.yllbetnarU Jlrcct 



This figure may be said rather to represent the usual 
dress of the farmers' servants in the southern parts of the 
kingdom. The frock, which he wears over his other 
clothes, is made of coarse linen, much in the same form 
as a shirt, except that the front is close, and usually 
stitched or plaited in a fanciful manner, as are also the 
shoulders aud back part of the neck. The small keg, 
seen on the ground, contains his beverage, when employed 
in the fields, and his provisions he carries in a wallet. 
These labourers are, in general, a hardy, robust class of 
men, and furnish the best soldiers in our armies. It may 
be observed here, that the peasantry and farmers' ser- 
vants in the southern counties of England are far behind 
their brethren in the more northern parts both in the 
cleanness and neatness of their dress. 

JE^(&JL^1^D~FX^TJE 3 



At every stand for hackney-coaches in the metropolis, 
there is one or more persons termed watermen, whose 
occupation is to attend to the horses, during any tem- 
porary absence of the coachman, to feed and water them; 
and when the coach is hired, to open the door to the pas- 
senger, for which he receives a halfpenny from the coach- 
man on quitting the stand. These watermen are all 
licensed, and wear a badge with their respective numbers 
engraven on it. The figure in the Plate is represented 
in the act of carrying two buckets of water ; his legs are 
wrapped with hay-bands, — a means which the watermen 
resort to in rainy weather, or when the streets are very 
muddy, in order to keep their legs dry. 


luihfliM Jan'lSLS.hy J. Murray ^ilbemarlx Sirrrt 



This Guard was first raised by King Henry the Seventh 
for the better protection of his person ; and then consisted 
of fifty archers, termed Yeomen, from being selected 
out of that class of his subjects immediately below the 
gentry. In the reigns of Henry VIII. and of Queen 
Mary their numbers were considerably increased, and 
continued, from that period, with little variation, till the 
Commonwealth, when they, with other attendants on 
royalty, were of course disbanded : they were raised 
again at the Revolution, since which time they have re- 
mained nearly as they are at this day, except that one half 
was formerly horsemen : their present number is one hun- 
dred. Six of this guard are termed yeomen-hangers, and 
two yeomen-bed-goers, these have charge of the King's 
camp equipage when he takes the field: there are also, 
a captain, lieutenant, ensign, clerks of the checque, four 
exons, and eight yeoman ushers : their guard-chamber is 
in St. James's Palace : their office is to attend upon the 
King wherever he may go. 


fuhiifhed JoTi^ 2S13. ly^- J Hurray AtbemarU ^ftreet. 



The catching of shrimps, ciiiefly for the supply of the 
London market, affords a means of livelihood to many 
females on different parts of the English coast. Each 
shrimper is furnished with a net suspended to the end of 
a slender pole, which, after wading in to a sufficient 
depth, she lowers into the sea; the produce of each 
draught she deposits in a basket tied to her middle. The 
shrimps are for the most part sent to Billingsgate, where 
they are boiled, and prepared for sale. 


PuHijTuJ .Tan.'.l/13;ty J Murrny.^-lCbcmdrlr Strret. 



The British Peerage comprises live degrees, viz. Duke, 
Marquis, Earl, Viscount, and Baron ; these titles are 
conferred by the King, either by patent or writ, and 
thereby rendered hereditary, and every nobleman thus 
enjoying the right of sitting in the upper House of Par- 
liament is styled a Peer of the realm. The Peers wear 
their robes on high occasions of state, as at the corona- 
tion of the King, the opening of a session of Parliament, 
the trial of a Peer by the High Court of Parliament, &c. 
&c. Formerly they used alw^ays to wear robes, when in 
the House of Lords, but this has been long discontinued. 
All Peers of the realm being considered as the King's 
counsellors, they cannot be arrested, except in cases of 
treason, felony, breach of the peace, condemnation in 
Parliament, or contempt of the King. 






rubWkU JarajM}. bv J.i{umi^. /Ilh,., 


The ashes which daily accumulate in the houses of the 
metropolis, from the constant use of coal as fuel, are re- 
moved, from time to time, by a class of men named dust- 
men, in the employ of those persons who farm of the 
different parishes the right of collecting this rubbish: 
they announce their presence to the inhabitants by ring- 
ing a bell, and where required, carry out the ashes in 
strong baskets, and deposit them in carts which they 
bring for that purpose. Formerly each parish paid a 
sum annually to any one, who would engage to collect 
the ashes ; but as building has of late years been carried 
to a great extent, and as the ashes are essentially neces- 
sary in the manufacture of bricks, they are now of great 
value, and the parishes obtain a considerable sum of 
money for the grant of the privilege of collecting them. 
They are conveyed to appropriate places in the out- 
skirts of the town, where they are sifted, and prepared 
for the brick-makers. 


fuhli/heJ Jim' J.ifw-nur.-int""^l' -'tT'ct- 



The five ports, named the Cinq Ports (of which Hastings 
is one) were from a very early period the principal fishing 
towns in England ; at present, however, almost every 
coast-town furnishes a greater or lesser number of fisher- 
men, through whose industry the inland country to a 
considerable distance is supplied with various kinds of 
fish. The fishermen are a bold, hardy class of men, and 
necessarily exposed to great fatigues and dangers in the 
winter months, particularly on the eastern shores, where 
numbers of them often perish by storms setting in sud- 
denly from the eastward. Their boats are of a strong con- 
struction, and will keep the sea in very boisterous weather ; 
and in cases where ships are in distress, or wrecked, upon 
the coast, the fishermen frequently render most essential 
services to the crews. 

ENGLAIVH) -ft.atf. 

PiU>UJh.d J.m>! 1III.1. hyJ.if-irr.iy.jllhemarU .ftrcet . 



The first regular, and permanent establishment for in- 
surance of property against accidental conflagration, was 
formed in the year 1698, and named the Haud-in-Hand 
Insurance-Office; this, however was for buildings only; 
but since that time, several others have arisen which 
insure every species of property, so that all persons now 
have it in their power to secure themselves against any 
losses which they might otherwise sustain from the de- 
structive effects of fire. Every office keeps a certain 
number of engines stationed in diff'erent parts of the 
metropolis, and a number of men constantly in pay, 
termed firemen, to work these engines, and otherwise 
assist during a fire. The firemen wear a dress peculiar 
to their respective offices, and a badge on their right arm, 
bearing the device assumed by such office : they some- 
times wear a cap made of strong leather, with bars of 
metal, to protect the head against any falling materials ; 
and they carry a pick-axe for the purpose of cutting 
away timber or for tearing off" tiles, lead, or any other 
body which may happen to prevent the water thrown 
from the engines, reaching the flames. 



-ft/ /■/■,;/>.•./ .hn'jniJ.hv ■IMnrrav.Jll.rm.aL- .in 


It is to Edward the First that we owe the establishment 
of regular courts of justice, and the appointment of 
judges for the due administration of the laws ; in his 
reign were completed the Courts of King's Bench, 
Exchequer, and the Common Pleas; the former is the 
highest court in England, after the House of Peers, and 
the first judge of it is styled the Lord Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench, and sometimes Lord Chief Justice of 
England, as pre-eminently the Lord Chief Justice : the 
jurisdiction of this court extends over all England. 
Every judge on his creation takes an oath, that he will 
serve the King, impartially administer justice to all men, 
take no bribe, give no counsel in any cause in which he 
is himself interested, nor deny right to any man, even 
though the King should command him to the contrary. 
He holds his office for life, and is allowed a considerable 
salary by the King. The plate represents a judge in the 
robes he wears when upon the Bench. 


r U,.-,f.ii, ^Ihtm/^rh .fft/y/. 



By a clause in the charter of the city of London all fish 
brought into that port must be sold under certain regula- 
tions and duties at the market in Billingsgate, and there 
only : at the period when this privilege was granted to 
the corporation, one fish market was probably sufficient; 
but at this day, when the capital is so much greater in 
size, and population, nothing certainly can be more 
unwise or more preposterous, than to continue to restrict 
the sale of this article of food to a small confined spot, 
at the extremity of the metropolis, and to subject it to 
regulations which have a direct tendency to diminish the 
supply ; indeed the purchase of fish is a species of mono- 
poly in the hands of a few individuals, who vend them to 
the retail fishmongers ; a small quantity of the inferior 
kinds is likewise bought by poor persons, chiefly females, 
who obtain a livelihood by selling them about the streets, 
and hence they are termed Billingsgate fish- women. Like 
the same description of characters in other ports, their 
manners and language are of the lowest and most brutal 


rubliflitd. Jan'WB. hy J. Uvrra,y,^lhnnarU Jt, 



The Royal Hospital of Greenwich was founded by King 
William and Queen Mary, as an asylum for seamen of the 
Royal Navy disabled by age, or maimed in the service of 
their country ; and for the support of the widows, and 
education of the children of those who might be slain ; 
but in the year 1712 a duty of sixpence per month having 
been charged upon every mariner, whether in the King's 
or merchants' service, for the better support of the Hos- 
pital, its benefits were in consequence extended to such 
of the latter as might be wounded in defending or cap- 
turing any ship, or in action against a pirate. The chief 
revenues of the Hospital, however, now arise from the 
profits of the North and South Foreland light-houses, — 
the rents of the forfeited estates of the Earl of Derwent- 
water, — and £6000 out of the coal-duty. The number 
of pensioners is 2350, who are provided with clothes, 
diet, and lodging, and are allowed besides, a small sum 
weekly for tobacco ; there are also 1 50 nurses, widows 
of seamen. The principal officers of the establishment 
are a governor, lieutenant-governor, four captains, eight 
lieutenants, u treasurer, secretary, two chaplains, physi- 
cian, surgeon, &c. 

E^GJLAHi])-= Plate 13 

Tithhih^ Jan" J/f/.J. hv J Miirr,i% Afhnrhit h .^/><w 


The creation of bishops is probably coeval with Chris- 
tianity in this country : the title is derived originally from 
the Greek, and to us from the Saxon biscop, and may be 
literally interpreted an overseer. In England there are 
twenty-four bishoprics subject to the two archiepiscopal 
sees of Canterbury and York, in the latter of which 
there are but three. Every English bishop is a baron, 
and peer of the realm, and takes precedence immediately 
after viscounts as well in parliament as in other public 
assemblies : he enjoys also numerous other high pri- 
vileges, and is, in some cases, in his own see, what the 
Sovereign is in the realm at large. The bishops are 
elected by the king's license, called the congSd'Slire, trans- 
mitted to the dean and chapter on every vacancy, together 
with the name of the divine his Majesty wishes to be 
chosen, and if this is not complied with in twelve days, 
he may ap^int by his letters-patent whom he pleases. 
A bishop's robe, in parliament, is scarlet, and he wears 
on his head a cap similar to that represented in the 



Chelsea hospital was begun by King Charles the Second, 
continued by his successor, and completed by King 
William and Queen Mary, who thus had the merit of 
establishing two of the noblest and most necessary 
asylums that this or any other country can boast of. 
Chelsea hospital contains apartments for upwards of three 
hundred aged or maimed soldiers, who, except in peculiar 
cases, must be sixty years old, and have served twenty 
years, to entitle them to admission. They are clothed 
in the uniform represented in the plate, and are provided 
with food and all other necessaries, and the sick receive 
every medical aid in an infirmary within the hospital. 
The expenses of the establishment are supported by one 
day's pay deducted annually from every officer and 
private in the British army, and when this is insufficient, 
the deficiency is made up by a sum voted by parliament. 
There is a governor and lieutenant-governor of the 
hospital, with other officers. The funds of this hospital 
also support, as out-pensioners, an unlimited number of 
soldiers, who have been wounded or who have obtained 
their discharge from their length of service. 


J\,bh/hrd Tan' IS IX hv J Murrn,' -Hhm,^!. i%..„ 

M I L K-M A 1 D. 

In the neighbourhood of the metropohs are several large 
cow-farms, from whence the retail dealers obtain the milk 
with which they supply the inhabitants. The figure in 
the plate represents one of the numerous females who 
are employed to carry this useful article about the town ; 
they are, in general, a hardy set of women, chiefly Irish 
or Welsh : they attend at the dairies from four to six 
o'clock in the morning, to receive the milk from those who 
milk the cows, and on their return are employed till near 
ten in vending it from house to house: they repair to the 
dairies again at noon for a fresh supply, the sale of which 
generally occupies them till near six o'clock in the even- 
ing. The vessels, or pails, in which they carry the milk, 
are made of tin, and suspended from a wooden yoke 
which fixes upon the shoulders. From a calculation 
made a few years since, the number of cows kept around 
London amounted to about eight thousand, and the 
annual value of the milk retailed, to about ^£481, 666. 


JiiHi/hal Jari^ ii'/J *>' JMiiiriu. .nbrmdiU Street. 


The cattle, and sheep, for the supply of Smithfield 
market, are brought as far as Islington on the day pre- 
ceding each market day, from whence they are driven, 
early in the following morning, into Smithfield by a num- 
ber of men and lads termed drovers, who likewise take 
charge of such cattle as may be purchased by the 
butchers of the metropolis and its environs, and drive 
them to their respective slaughter-houses. The cruelty 
with which these people were accustomed to treat the 
animals, when under their guidance, called so loudly for 
the interference of the legislature, that a regulation was 
adopted a few years ago, by which they are all now 
compelled to wear a badge with a number upon it, so that 
any person may give information at the proper office, in 
cases where they are seen guilty of cruelty, or other 
improper conduct. 


TuhliJKci. Jan'.lSli. by J.Mumiv.AlJbtT'uiTU Street 



The Order of the Garter is the noblest and the most 
ancient of any state in Europe; it was founded in 1350, 
by King Edward the Third, and consists of the Sovereign 
and twenty-five knights companions, also a dean and 
twelve canons, with other inferior officers, and twenty- 
six poor knights. There is also a prelate and a chan- 
cellor of the Order, (the former of whom must always be 
the Bishop of Winchester, and the latter the Bishop of 
Salisbury,) a registrar, the principal king at arms, called 
Garter, and an usher of the garter, who is also usher of 
the black rod. Their place of installation is in St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor. The dress of the knights is 
extremely splendid; besides the riband, they wear a 
richly embroidered garter round the left knee, a surcoat 
of crimson velvet, and a mantle and hood of purple 
velvet, all lined with white taffeta; on the left shoulder 
of the mantle is an escutcheon of St. George's cross 
embroidered within the garter, and over these robes they 
wear a collar of the Order, made of pure gold, and 
enamelled with red and white roses, to which is append- 
ed the figures of St. George and the dragon. The cap 
is of black velvet with a diamond band, and a plume of 
white feathers, with a heron sprig in the middle. 




The character of a British sailor is so universally known, 
that it is almost superfluous to say anything on the sub- 
ject in this place : whether in the horrors of the tempest, 
or amid the dangers of battle, his skill, his firmness, and 
his heroism are alike conspicuous ; no obstacles can 
overcome him ; no enterprise, however difficult, or despe- 
rate, shakes his resolution ; let his leader but point the 
undertaking, he is always prepared to obey, and it is a 
consoling and a glorious reflection, that success is his 
almost unvarying attendant : nor is this all, his huma- 
nity to a vanquished enemy is only surpassed by the 
courage with which he subdues him, and his victory, 
once complete, the same hand that pointed the cannon is 
stretched out to save those victims who may be strug- 
gling with the wave, or clinging to the shattered frag- 
ments of their ships. Neither must it ever be forgotten, 
that to these united qualities in her seamen, added to a 
spirit of enterprize rarely equalled, and never surpassed, 
by any other people, is Great Britian chiefly indebted 
for her wide-extended dominion, her independence, and 
her power. 

^-' .^.J^- 

JElf GJLAHB - PJLATJE^ J.Uun-ay.Albcmarlr Suvt. 



The figure in this Plate represents one of the numerous 
characters who obtain a livelihood by vending matches 
about the streets of the metropolis; they are chiefly 
young girls, or old men and women. 





ruH,th.:i J,,,,' IS/.l. /-y TMurmy. .ilKin.irlc Street 



The College of Heralds was first established by King 
Richard III., and its privileges afterwards augmented 
by King Edward VI., — its members are (besides the 
Earl-Marshal) three kings at arms, six heralds at arms, 
and four pursuivants at arms. Of the kings at arms 
Garter is the principal, as he attends at all solemnities 
relating to the Order of the Garter ; the next is Claren- 
cieux, whose office is to regulate all matters relating to 
the funerals of the lower nobility, knights, &c. on the 
south of Trent, from which he is sometimes styled Sur- 
roy, or South-roy ; the third king at arms is Nor-roy or 
North-roy, who performs on the north of Trent what Sur- 
rey does on the south ; the fourth is Bath king at arms, 
who attends at the creation of knights of the Bath. The 
six heralds are termed, Somerset, Chester, Richmond, 
York, Windsor, and Lancaster. The pursuivants are 
Blue-mantle, Rouge-croix, Rouge-dragon, and Portcullis, 
so named, as is said, from their wearing these respective 
badges. The chief employment of the heralds, at this 
day, and indeed of the whole College, is to trace the 
genealogies of families, record new grants of armorial 
bearings, attend on all high public solemnities, as corona- 
tions, installations, &c., &c., and proclaim peace or war. 
Besides the above there is a king at arms for Scotland, 
styled Lion, and one for Ireland, styled Ulster. 



TuiUfluJ Ja^'jSJS. hy JMn^cy. Anm^rt, 



It is a custom (probably derived from the numerous 
May-games once prevalent in this country) for little 
groups of chimney-sweepers to parade the streets of 
London on the first of May, and three or four following 
days, dressed in the most ludicrous manner, with all the 
faded tinsel finery they can procure, whether of male or 
female attire : some of them are accompanied with a 
drum, others with a fiddle, and those who cannot procure 
either, are content with the music created by the beat 
of their own brush and shovel; they solicit the donations 
of the public, and where successful, repay it by a rude 
kind of dance, to one or other of the above species of 
music. The late Mrs. Montague used, on the first of 
May, to entertain, on the green before her house in Glos- 
ter-place, a great part of this sooty fraternity, with a 
dinner of roast beef, plum-pudding, and ale. It is much 
to be regretted, that she did not provide for the conti- 
nuance of this benevolent custom. 



Fuhlx/hed Janf 182^. by J_ Murray, jflh^^arlc Strf^. 


Of the various itinerant traders who are constantly met 
with in the streets of the metropolis, those who sell fruit 
are probably the most numerous. They are almost all 
females from the sister kingdom, and generally fix their 
stand at the corner of a street, or wheel their wares 
about in a barrow similar to what is represented in the 




rubl^hfJ Jan^JSJJ. by I Murray. -dlhanarU Strtft 



The chief magistrate of the City of London was first 
styled Mayor in the beginning of the reign of King 
Richard I., and, in the reign of King John, the power of 
his election was vested in the citizens. The authority 
and privileges of the Lord Mayor are of great extent, 
and an establishment is provided for him by the chamber 
of the city, with certain officers for the better support of 
his dignity. On the death of the Sovereign he acts as the 
first person in the realm, and at a coronation he claims 
the right of officiating as chief butler. His jurisdiction 
also extends over a great part of the river Thames ; and 
he can reprieve criminals tried at the court of gaol-deli- 
very in the city and county of Middlesex. The Mayor 
is chosen annually by the livery-men out of the twenty- 
six aldermen, the senior of whom, not having filled the 
office, generally receiving the preference. He is here 
represented in his robes of office. 




The General Post-office may be considered not only the 
most useful, but the most complete public establishment 
in these kingdoms, as well in regard to the regularity, as 
to the quick despatch in all its departments : The mails 
reach London every morning about 7 o'clock, and all the 
letters addressed to persons resident in the capital are 
delivered daily (Sundays excepted) between the hours 
of ten and twelve o'clock, by men belonging to the Post- 
office, who for their better distinction, wear a livery; 
these postmen also go round the different quarters of the 
town assigned to them, from five till six o'clock in the 
evening, with a bell, and collect all letters that have not 
been put into the different receiving-houses before the 
former hour. The whole of the letters are then conveyed 
by them to the General Post-office, from whence the 
mails are despatched about 8 o'clock the same evening. 

Eh gjlahb —pjlatje 

/^^/jrwy.,,.,*,^ j,^ ,^^„^. ^,^^^^^^ ^^ 



This Plate represents the dress generally worn by ladies 
in the morning, at the different watering places upon the 
coast, during the summer and autumn. 

ElTGJLAiaD BlATE -26, 

^uhtUhed Jtw^.I^J3,hy JMiirrat: ^fhi-mtirlf Street. 



As a great part of the Highlands of Scotland is only fit- 
ted to the depasturing of sheep, large flocks of these 
valuable animals are met with throughout them, each 
attended by one or more shepherds, who, during the 
summer months, live in huts upon those wilds ; they are 
attended by dogs of a peculiar breed, and remarkable for 
their sagacity, as they will, at their master's command, 
conduct a flock from one spot to another, while he remains 
stationary giving his directions. During the winter 
season these shepherds are exposed to great hardships, 
from the constant attendance they are obliged to bestow 
upon their flocks, both by day and night, and it not 
unfrequently happens in snowy weather that a whole 
flock will be completely buried in the course ofa night by 
the sudden drifting of snow into a valley, where they had 
been placed, perhaps, for greater security : in such cases, 
the shepherds procure as early assistance as possible, to 
remove the snow, and thereby extricate the sheep, many 
of which are, however, often smothered before this can be 
effected. In summer, or fine weather, the shepherds 
generally employ themselves in knitting stockings, or 
garters, reading, or some other useful way. 

EN"(r;]LANIiJ — Pj.ATE £7, 

TiiHhOicA .laii'lfUhvJ.'iCuiTav.AIhrnuirh , 



It has been observed that the employment of riflemen in 

an army is scarcely justifiable; because, like an assassin, 

they act in secret, and neither afford an adversary an 

opportunity to defend himself or to stand upon his guard ; 

there may be some truth in this ; but it must, at the same 

time, be remembered that, during war, one nation is 

frequently compelled, in self-defence, to adopt measures 

which it never would have resorted to, had not the 

ingenuity, or the malignity of its enemies rendered them 

absolutely necessary : such is the case with regard to the 

employment of riflemen in the British army : — The 

destruction occasioned in its ranks by the French tirail- 

leurs, pointed out the necessity of our having a similar 

kind of troops; and the 95th regiment of infantry was 

accordingly, some years since, formed into a rifle corps, 

to which others have since been added. The uniform of 

the whole is dark green. 


Tuhlishcd Jttrt' J. yiiara.v.-Alhemaj'li Jtrret. 



The police of the capital, during the night, has been, 
from an early period, committed to a body of men styled 
the Watch; each parish maintains a certain number of 
these, who assemble every evening, previously to their 
repairing to their respective stations, at the different 
watch-houses, where a constable attends for the purpose 
of deciding upon the cases of such offenders as may be 
brought thither in the course of the night. The watch- 
men continue upon duty, from 9 o'clock in the evening 
till 6 in the morning in winter, and from 10 till 4 in the 
summer, and they are enjoined to walk their rounds 
every half hour, and proclaim aloud the time of night ; 
they each carry a large rattle, which they spring when 
necessary either to give alarm of fire, or to call the as- 
sistance of their comrades, when in danger of being over- 
powered : but, notwithstanding these regulations, this 
species of police is not so efficient as it ought to be ; 
many of the watchmen, are, improperly, feeble old men, 
and the frequent depredations committed upon the houses 
and persons of the inhabitants during the night, show 
too plainly that they are often either shamefully deficient 
in vigilance, or that they connive at these acts of vio- 

JE:s'G]laio])=]Rlate z&. 



Though Great Britain cannot properly be considered 
as a military nation, yet she may perhaps boast of hav- 
ing produced at various periods more able generals and 
commanders than any other state in Europe, whether we 
reckon their military skill, their patriotism, their courage, 
their humanity, or that greatest of all merits, the attain- 
ment of splendid successes often with inferior numbers, 
and without a prodigal sacrifice of their troops. Since the 
French Revolution, however, certain events had given 
birth to opinions in this country, that, while we possessed 
the bravest soldiers in the world, we had no officers com- 
petent to lead them into action with any prospect of ulti- 
mate success, or who were at all equal to cope with the 
Generals of France : this notion, always an idle one, has, 
however, been happily destroyed : and the campaign in 
Egypt, but more especially those of Spain and Portugal, 
have proved to the world that neither the valour of the 
French armies, nor the boasted skill of their generals are 
at all superior, if equal, to those of our own countrymen. 
The uniform of the General Officers in the British 
Army has recently undergone some slight changes ; the 
hat is now lined with the ostrich plumes, and aglets are 
worn suspended from the shoulder, instead of epaulettes, 
as formerly. 

]EFi&]LAM5=lP]LATE, SO, 

J'ublv/hid Jd/^J^Ji.h,- JMTrav^lbeTnarle 



Large dairy farms are kept in the various counties in 
England, which chiefly supply the markets with cheese 
and butter ; considerable skill is required in the females 
who are employed in the making of these two articles, 
the excellence of which entirely depends upon the proper 
management of the cream and milk in the different stages 
of the operation. The figure here represented is a dairy- 
maid in the act of churning, in what is called a barrel- 
churn ; formerly the churn was an upright narrow vessel, 
in which the butter was produced by agitating the cream 
with a staff, in a way somewhat similar to the milling' of 
chocolate ; but the great labour, and the slowness of this 
process led to the introduction of the barrel-churn, 
which, from the various improvements it has undergone, 
is now rendered very complete. In the larger dairies, 
the churn is so fixed as to be turned by a horse. Besides 
what is furnished by the dairy farms a considerable 
quantity of cheese and butter is generally made in the 
house of almost every farmer in the country either for 
sale or the use of the family. 

ES"(&I.AK!D) -P'lLAXE 

PutUOtri Jmlieu hy liUirra^ Mhmua-U Jtmt. 



This Plate represents one of those men who are daily 
employed in conveying malt-liquor from the different 
breweries, to the houses of private families, or those of 
the publicans in and about the metropolis. The vehicle 
in the back ground is a beer-dray, and the instrument 
shown on the cask is called a slings by means of which 
two men will carry a cask of considerable size, by sup- 
porting the ends of the beam upon their shoulders. The 
porter-drays carry generally three butts each, and it is 
the part of the draymen to unload these, and place them 
in proper situations in the publicans' cellars ; in doing 
which they display a considerable degree of skill and 
dexterity, and will lower into a cellar a number of butts 
in a very short time, considering their size and great 
weight. — The draymen are, in general, countrymen, and 
from their occupation necessarily of strong and robust 

]E:M'(&X.ANJD)-]P]LATE S.2, 

Stitli/htJ j:w!Mlf.bvJ.31i„TM'^rhnnnrl.- .Street — 


The earliest instance of the assembly of the Commons of 
England selecting from amongst themselves a person to 
preside over and regulate their proceedings is said to 
have occurred in the minority of Edward I., and he who 
was so chosen they styled their Speaker, a title which has 
continued to the present day. On the meeting of 
every new parliament, the first act of the members is to 
choose a Speaker, who is next presented to the King in 
the House of Peers, (if he open the parliament in per- 
son,) where he petitions that the Commons may, during 
their sitting, have free access to his majesty; also free- 
dom of speech in their own house ; and freedom from 
arrests. In the House the Speaker wears a robe of black 
silk embroidered with gold lace, and is seated in an 
elevated chair, with a sword and mace placed on a table 
before him, and every member addresses himself to him 
when speaking. His business is to read all bills, to put 
questions, and, in cases where the House is divided, or 
the numbers upon a question are equal, he has the pri- 
vilege of giving the casting vote; but cannot vote 
otherwise. He also determines in all matters in dispute 
between members respecting the forms of the House, or 
in whatever else relates to its proceedings. This high 
office has been filled, at different periods, by some of the 
most illustrious characters to be found in the annals of 
our country, and many of whom have been elevated to 
the Peerage. 


lE^GXu^^no-PXuAnnE sa,. 

^ithhy/trJ JtmfJSlS. hv J-Iiurrav.-dnyem.U'le . 


The butchers in the suburbs of the metropolis, and some 
of those within it, usually send a boy, on horseback, to 
collect orders from such of their customers as may hap- 
pen to live at a considerable distance, and likewise to 
carry home the meat they may want: the tray, or 
basket, containing this is strapped across the horse's 
shoulders, and the rider places himself behind it. The 
animals employed for this purpose are generally of poor 
condition, but are remarkable for their great speed in 
trotting; and the fury with which their mischievous 
riders urge them on through the streets is not always 
unattended with danger to the unwary passenger. 


EB"(R,]LATOD) "lElLATnE. S4, 

AiMjfhnl J,m-im hv.TMtnj,;,Ani,-m,ir!,' ,f( 



The history of the Admirals who have successively com- 
manded the fleets of Great Britain, presents perhaps the 
most numerous catalogue of truly great men, and of 
splendid achievements that is to be found in the annals of 
any country ancient or modern. Under their guidance 
our navy has rode triumphant on every sea ; or if unfor- 
seen circumstances at any period obscured its glory, it 
vi^as but for a day ; their genius, and the courage of our 
seamen, have at all times risen superior to every difficulty, 
and the fancied triumphs of our enemies only tended to 
render their discomfiture more signal, and their humilia- 
tion more complete. Formerly, there v^as a Lord High 
Admiral of Great Britain ; but his office is now filled by 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty : the Admirals 
are styled of the Red, of the White, and of the Blue; of 
each of which there are also Vice and Rear Admirals. 
The Admiral is commander of the fleet, and hoists his flag 
at the main-top-mast head : the Vice Admiral commands 
the second squadron, whose flag is at the fore-top-mast 
head ; and the rear squadron is commanded by the Rear 
Admiral, his flag being at the mizen-top-mast head. 


EH-cKlLAmj) = ]plLATnE 35 , 

PnhUlhd.TiuxfxSUI. hy.T.Mim;i,:^in-m<a-U ,fe»rt._ 



The rank of Baron is conferred either by writ or by- 
patent ; but more usually by the latter ; the first mode 
being resorted to only in cases where the son of a peer is 
called to the Upper House of Parliament during the life 
of his father ; the former is, however, the most ancient, 
Henry the Third having, after the great rebellion in his 
reign, called into Parliament, by writ, such of the Barons 
as had continned loyal to him ; before this period they 
were of little repute. The first Baron created by patent 
was in the reign of Richard the Second. A Baron had 
no coronet before the reign of Charles the Second, when 
he was allowed to wear a circle of gold with six pearls 
set close to the rim, as now used. He takes precedence 
after a bishop, and his style is Right Noble Lord. 


Jittlifiul JojtfiSiS. lv.X^^^y.^-Ubcu\.irh .ttrtff. 



This Plate represents a scholar of Christ-Church Hospi- 
tal, commonly called a Blue-coat Boy, from his dress, 
which is a blue vest of coarse woollen cloth. This 
hospital was formerly a monastery of Franciscans, and at 
the dissolution of religious houses, Edward VI. converted 
it into an hospital for poor children, in which they were 
to be educated, and, when at proper ages, to be appren- 
ticed out to trades. In the fire of 1666, the greater part 
of the ancient building was destroyed, but by the muni- 
ficence of its governor, trustees, and other charitable 
persons, it was rebuilt under the direction of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. King Charles II. founded in it a mathe- 
matical school, which he also liberally endowed, for the 
educating of forty boys, and training them up for the 
sea : many able mathematicians and seamen have sprung 
from this institution. The writing-school was founded 
in 1694 by Sir John Moore, an alderman of London, 
whose statue is placed in the front of the building. The 
governors of this Hospital have established a seminary at 
Hertford, whither the youngest of the children are sent, 
and educated preparatory to their reception into the 
hospital. The whole number of children maintained 
upon the foundation is considerably above one thou- 



hthUfheS -^dn^JSiS.hy- J.i^-rav ^Ihei'uirh Sirrft. 



The original of this vagabond race is involved in much 
obscurity : when their ancestors first appeared in Europe, 
they described themselves as having been expelled from 
Egypt by the Turks; hence they w^ere every where 
termed Egyptians (now corrupted by us into Gipsies) ; 
the French also call them Bohemiens, from their having 
first settled in Bohemia. Whatever truth there might 
have been in their story ; it is now generally supposed 
that they are of Eastern origin, as a tribe of people is 
met with in a part of our East India settlements, 
resembling them strongly not only in the general cast of 
their countenance, but also in their unsettled mode of life, 
and pretensions to fortune-telling. Fielding, in his Tom 
Jones, has given us the most exact picture of what the 
Gipsies were in this country in his time, that is any where 
to be met with. — Their numbers are at this day greatly 
diminished ; but the few that still remain lead the same 
wandering life as their forefathers, living in the fields in 
the summer, and in the winter in such hovels as the far- 
mers, or others, will allow them. The men are generally 
knife-grinders, tinkers, or chair-menders; while the chief 
occupation of the females is in defrauding the simple or 
credulous, by pretending to tell them their fortunes. 
Norwood, a village in the neighbourhood of London, was 
for a long time a noted rendezvous of Gipsies, but they 
have of late years been in a great measure driven from 





The British cavalry may certainly, in every respect, be 
considered as tlie finest and the best in Europe ; and, 
wherever it has been in actual service, its decided supe- 
riority in point of intrepidity, courage, and the celerity of 
its movements has ever been conspicuous, though it has 
almost in every campaign been inferior in numbers to the 
same description of force opposed to it. It may be di- 
vided, generally, into three classes — Dragoons, Light 
Dragoons, and Hussars, not including the three regiments 
of Life Guards, which will be noticed in a subsequent 
page. The Plate represents a private of Dragoons, in the 
uniform which has lately been adopted; instead of cocked- 
hats, as formerly, they now wear strong helmets in great 
part made of brass, and fastened under the chin by a band 
of the same metal : late experience in the field, pointed 
out the absolute necessity of a more secure head-covering 
for the cavalry, than what was formerly in use, and this 
now seems to be completely attained in the late regula- 


J'uHUh,,! J,m'tSJ3 h' ^Ihem.irh Mr,H . 


In all matters relating to the making and sale of bread the 
laws of this country are very strict ; and, what is rather sin- 
gular, the baker is the only tradesman in the metropolis 
whose profits are limited by the magistrates, who regulate 
the price of the loaf according to that of flour. The peck- 
loaf, by the Act of Parliament, must weigh, when well- 
baked, 171bs. 6oz. avoirdupois; and every sack of meal 
or flour is to weigh 2cwt. 2qrs. which ought to produce 
on an average 20 peck-loaves of bread. The penalty, for 
making bread short of weight, is 5*. for every ounce 
deficient, and a forfeiture of the bread : But notwithstand- 
ing these most salutary laws, the perverse ingenuity of 
unprincipled men not unfrequently contrives to elude 
them, and to defraud the public not only in the quality 
of the bread, but also in the weight. 

M 4 

xr-^ -i'^ 

nEi[T<G]L.AKID) =PX.AXIE 40. 

J^blijhfJ JatiT iSiA.b'. JMnrT.iv.Mhnnarle Strtft. 


The word Alderman is derived from the Anglo-Saxon 
ealderman, a title anciently given to the officer who pre- 
sided over a shire : it is now confined to certain persons 
in corporate cities. In the city of London there are 
twenty-six aldermen, who preside over the twenty-six 
wards into which it is divided: they are elected by the 
freemen, and are allowed one, or two deputies, according 
to the extent of the ward, to assist them in the adminis- 
tration of its affairs ; and if they refuse to fill the office 
when elected, they become subject to a fine of £500. : the 
office is held for life ; and they all act as magistrates for 
the city of London, and its liberties. The Lord Mayor 
is annually chosen out of the twenty-six aldermen, the 
senior one, as has been already mentioned, usually meet- 
ing the preference. They wear a scarlet robe, bordered 
with fur, on particular occasions, as shown in the Plate. 


}*uhiyhed Joji'JSiS. by JMurray, Alhrnxarlf Sircet . 


Amongst the various appendages to the Royal House- 
hold is the band of serjeant trumpeters, which consists 
of seventeen persons, under the command of the deputy 
Serjeant, who wears a dress similar to what is represented 
in the Plate ; the dress of the others is the same, except 
that they wear black velvet caps. These trumpeters 
attend at all public ceremonies, as coronations, installa- 
tions, royal marriages, &c. &c., and bear each a silver 
trumpet, with banners on which the arms of England are 
richly embroidered. By an ancient privilege, granted to 
the Serjeant Trumpeter, no person can sound a trumpet, 
beat a drum, or play upon a fife, at any play, or other 
public exhibition of whatever kind, without his license, 
under penalty of fine and imprisonment. 



3EIf (GJLAKB -PI T. A T E 42. 

JiibUfliid Jan':iSl3, hy J.Mtirrav.^lbtynarle .itr^rt 



It is only within a few years that this description of light 
cavalry has been introduced into the British army : it con- 
sists of four regiments, viz. the 7th, 10th, 15th, and I8th, 
all of which were originally regiments of light dragoons; 
these four regiments are styled the hussar brigade, and 
form a very fine body of cavalry. A part of this brigade 
was attached to Sir John Moore's army in Spain, where 
it particularly distinguished itself in several aifairs with 
some of the best cavalry of the French army, amongst 
which may be reckoned the imperial guards, over which 
it manifested a decided superiority. Their uniform and 
equipments are very splendid, particularly those of the 
officers. The fur cap seen in the Plate is now only worn 
on parade : when in actual service they wear a kind of 
low, flat, circular helmet, so made as to be sword-proof. 
The loth regiment is commanded by His R. H. the 
Prince Regent; the 15th by His R. H. the Duke of 
Cumberland; the 7th by the Earl of Uxbridge; and the 
1 8th by the Marquis of Drogheda. 



EK'^aLANB-rx.ATE 4S 

Aili/hM JnnJim.hJ:Mun-av.^inenuu-le ,ftmt. 


The 42d Highland regiment has become so conspicuous 
by its conduct in Egypt, that we have purposely selected 
a private of that corps to represent the general costume 
of the Highland soldier. This regiment was first raised 
in 1739, and was, for some time, the only Highland regi- 
ment in the British army. The chief scenes of its services, 
previous to the peace of 1782, were America and the 
West Indies. During the present war it has been in 
almost every campaign, and since that in Egypt has, 
wherever engaged with an enemy, always maintained the 
high character it there acquired. The gallant, but un- 
fortunate. Sir John Moore, received his fatal wound while 
cheering this regiment for its intrepidity on the heights 
before Corunna, in 1809. Its present colonel is the 
Marquis of Huntley. 

Where all are excellent, it appears invidious to make 
distinctions ; but it may be fairly asserted, without incurr- 
ing this charge, that no troops in His Majesty's service 
are more distinguished for their loyalty, courage, sobriety, 
and strict discipline, than those which compose the High- 
land regiments. 


EiETGrlLAOTD-lRlLAnnE 44. 

WBga c-' 

JS'htifhM .Tnn^ifts.hy JMurrav. Alhniujrlf 


The markets in the different towns in the kingdom are 
always frequented by numbers of females, the wives or 
daughters of labourers, and cottagers, who bring thither 
small quantities of many useful articles, as eggs, fresh 
butter, poultry, or whatever else their industry may 
furnish : and, by the money arising from the sale of these, 
they are enabled to carry back to their homes wearing 
apparel, a little butchers' meat, or other necessaries for 
the use of their families till they can raise another stock 
to be disposed of in the same way. The traveller may al- 
ways know when he is approaching a town on the market- 
day, by the numbers of these people which he is sure to 
meet either hurrying thither, or returning to their homes, 
and the neatness of their persons on these occasions 
strongly bespeaks that cleanliness and industry, for 
which the English cottagers are, in general, so noted. 



ruhlWiei .Im'.im.hy .T-Mvmv,AIhrmarh .itiret 



The three regiments of Foot Guards were formed in the 
reign of King Charles II. : the first in point of time is the 
Coldstream regimeni;, (though now the Second), which 
had been raised by General Monk, when he was in the 
service of the Commonwealth, and of which the King 
made him Colonel upon the new regulations taking place 
after the Restoration. In every war since that period, in 
which Great Britain has been engaged, these three regi- 
ments have been employed: as their's is the post of 
honour, it is of course that where the greatest exertions 
are required, and it may be said that since the battle of 
Fontenoy in J 745 till the present day, the history of their 
achievements is, with few exceptions, that of the most 
transcendant heroism. In time of peace the three regi- 
ments are usually quartered in garrison in the Tower of 
London, and in barracks in Westminster. The King's 
person, the Royal Family, the Tower, and, in times of 
danger, the Bank of England, are particularly under their 
protection. Great attention is paid to the size and 
figure of the recruits, and their discipline is of the very 
strictest kind. When in the field the grenadiers of the 
three regiments are frequently formed into one brigade. 


'Wr^i ^l . AI PD ="Pir , ATTR 46^. 

iiihUfllti Jan^JfJJ. hf J2£nra^..dlhemarle 



The principal occupation of the beadles is to prevent any 
improper behaviour by idle persons in the neighbourhood 
of the church during divine service, to see that no boys, 
or others, are playing about the streets of their different 
parishes on the sabbath, and that the publicans keep 
their houses shut in the hours of prayer. They likewise 
attend upon the vestry ; and when the churchwardens go 
round the parish in their official capacity, they are always 
attended by the beadles in their proper livery, and 
bearing their staves : they likewise attend daily at the 
workhouse. In short they may be termed the messen- 
gers of the vestry. 

]E:N'<C3L^^Iff!) =]BLAXE 47. 

PuHiJhed Jail' isa. fyJ2Simiv,^lhnnnrlc Strrrf.- 



This Plate represents the the mode in which the Welsh 
peasantry wash their linen : a party of them assemble at 
the edge of a running stream, and after they have rinsed 
the linen they lay it upon a smooth flat stone, and beat 
it with a wooden spatula, till the water or suds are com- 
pletely out of it : they then rinse it a second, and perhaps 
a third time, and after another beating, spread it out to 
dry, in the most convenient places, where it is likely to 
have the full power of the sun's rays. The Scottish pea- 
santry follow the same method with their linen, after first 
soaking it in water, and treading it with their bare feet* 

E]^GI.ANB -11 .ATE 48 . 


The dissemination of the newspapers published daily in 
London forms the occupation of a considerable number 
of persons, who purchase the journals of the printers, and 
deliver them, at an early hour after their publication, at 
the houses of their respective customers in town. But 
in addition to these regular newsmen, there are a number 
of idle characters, who hawk the evening papers about 
the streets frequently to a late hour, particularly when 
they contain any extraordinary news: on these occasions 
they place a paper in the front of their hats, containing 
the words " Second Edition," " Important Intelligence," 
or some other equally striking words; while they an- 
nounce their presence with a tin horn which they blow 
with the utmost vehemence, to the no slight annoyance 
of every person that comes in their way. 

nE:^'fii.Aio3)"]pxATnE 4Ji>. 

iMifll^.l 7.mJ£a.h' .7JHi,rruy.jllhnn,rrlr Slrr<t . 



Of the various improvements and inventions of a military 
kind in this country of late years, none, perhaps, has 
been more successful than those connected with our artil- 
lery, the celerity of its movements in the field and the 
precision of its service being alike the theme of praise in 
the details of every action where it had been employed. 
Of the horse-artillery each gun is drawn by four, or 
more horses, according to circumstances, managed by 
riders called artillery drivers, and the tumbril containing 
the ammunition, &c. is attached to the gun-carriage when 
in motion, and upon it the men belonging to each gun 
are seated ; thus a whole train, with every thing belong- 
ing to it can be transported with the greatest dispatch to 
any point where its services may be required. When in 
position, the tumbrils are unhooked from the gun-car- 
riages, and placed at a proper distance in the rear. 

jETN'if^T , AT^nra -t ptt. axf. 5>i 

fuhhihoi Jan-^iSIi.hv J-JtuTTM^lhrmarte Strut. 


The cavalry of his Majesty's household troops consists of 
two regiments usually called the King's Life Guards, and 
the regiment of Royal Horse Guards Blue. The two 
former are permanently stationed in and near London, 
one regiment occupying a fine set of barracks at Knights- 
bridge, and the other temporary ones in Marylebone. 
Troops of the Life Guards do duty alternately at the 
Horse Guards, Whitehall : their other duties consist in 
escorting the King wherever he goes in public, and in 
keeping order in the neighbourhood of the palace when 
courts are held there. In cases of serious popular com- 
motion, they are likewise called in to aid the civil power, 
and it is but justice to say that on such occasions, not- 
withstanding the provocation they frequently receive, 
they always show every forbearance that is consistent 
with their duty. In 1812, the greater part of these two re- 
giments were for the first time called into actual service, 
and sent to the British army in Spain ; previously to their 
departure, considerable alterations were made in their 
dress, the whole being assimilated to that of the regi- 
ments of Dragoon Guards. The men are for the most 
part of large stature, their horses universally black, and 
altogether form a remarkably fine body of heavy cavalry. 

I'rlnted by Hnulett and Brimmer, 
Fritli Street, Mho. 




H %'